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Joseph Galluzzo

Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 11:

Yet another horrible scene is painted by Voltaire. The vivid images of people being annihilated place in the forefront the brutality of the world in which the old woman fought to survive. Horrific details of murders are given while ironically making note of the fact that those committing these horrible acts are the same people that comply with their religious obligations of praying 5 prayers a day. Here, Voltaire is singling out the hypocracy of those who claim to be “religious.”

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 10:

This passage highlights Candide’s attempt to be the good and faiful student of Pangloss. Having lost the comforts of the castle, he and his companions wander in pursuit of a new haven. Candide is the voice of optimism and encouragement and draws in the cooperation of nature’s elements, (water and wind)that he believes are leaning him toward their goal of finding that place where “all is for the best.”

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 2:

Voltaire’s reference to terrestrial paradise can be considered a link back to the Garden of Eden. Like Adam and Eve, Candide was enjoying the pleasures of paradise on earth in the castle with Cunegonde until he overstepped his boundaries and was cast out. He suffers emotional, as well as physical pain as a result of his banishment. With these circumstances, Voltaire illustates that not following rules or exercising control provide only temporary pleasure and satisfaction, but ultimately come with a high price to be paid.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 9:

Once Candide finds himself in the position of being a murderer of one man, he feels it does not worsen matters by killing a second time. He understands that the Inquisitor has responsibilities, while at the same time, Candide knows he must act out of self-preservation. Voltaire presents the readers with a situation, which highlights the extreme measures that must be taken in order for man to survive.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 7:

The old woman is the “Good Samaritan” who rescues Candide from his unfortunate circumstances. Her prior reference to the many saints, in whose care she is leaving Candide, link her to those divine beings who diliver us from the tragedies in this world.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 5:

Candide’s outcry at this early point in the novel foretells of how many instances in which the characters believe they have met their fate. It is interesting that disasters and even death seem to have effects which are lessened as the story develops. Those who were believed to have been dead, are in fact alive. The Last Day seems to be successfully dodged by many throughout the novel.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 8:

It is almost incredible that a person that has suffered as many indignities and losses as Cunegonde would find something as innocent as a kiss as reason enough to cling to life. Her reunion with Candide is like an opiate, which eases the pain of her dreadful experiences. The mention of something as mundane as hunger exemplifies her continuous physical and spiritual will to endure.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 6:

I agree with you James. By offering human sacrifice, the earthquake victims thought they would “appease the gods.” Just as in Dante’s Inferno, punishments were crime-specific. The victims of the auto-da-fé did not calm the angry earth as was evidenced by another earthquake. This whole process was an example of helplessness and poor judgment.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 12:

In all of her bitterness, the old woman still clings to the passion she has for life no matter how miserably it has treated her. Voltaire expresses through this character that although we be raped, mutulated, and beaten our spirit can survive. The Old Woman reminds us that we are vulnerable to fate.

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Joseph Galluzzo on Chapter 4:

Pangloss gives gory details regarding the acts of the Bulgarian soldiers in way that is almost “matter of fact” in tone. His reference to the Abares being capable of the same, makes the scenario to be one of “an eye for an eye.” In his endless optimism, Pangloss treats the devastation as a typical occurrence in times of war.

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  1. Ade1a (2)
  2. Alice Boone, Curator, Candide at 250: Scandal and Success (40)
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  19. Eric Palmer, Allegheny College, editor of the Broadview Editions 'Candide' (3)
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  27. James Basker, Richard Gilder Professor of Literary History, Barnard College (5)
  28. James Morrow, author The Last Witchfinder, The Philosopher's Apprentice (23)
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  30. Joe Haldeman (1)
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  33. Joseph Galluzzo (10)
  34. Justine Brown, author of Hollywood Utopia and All Possible Worlds (11)
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  50. Nicholas Cronk, Voltaire Foundation, Oxford (4)
  51. Nicholas Petrovich (1)
  52. Nicole Horejsi, Assistant Professor of English and Comparative Literature, Columbia University (11)
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  57. Samantha Morse (3)
  58. Samantha White, 12th Grade IB Student (2)
  59. Sean Murray, Intrigued Student (1)
  60. Shelley (1)
  61. Stanton Wood, playwright, Candide Americana (13)
  62. Tom Gilbert (5)
  63. Travis Lo (1)
  64. Trisha Amin (1)
  65. Victor Uszerowicz (1)
  66. Wataru Hoeltermann, Student at MDC (1)
  67. William Rodriguez (1)
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Total comments in book: 226