Take a visual journey through Voltaire's Candide

Suggested Reading



Voltaire. Candide ou L’optimisme: et autres contes. [Paris]: Pocket, 1998.

Voltaire. Candide and Related Texts. Translated, with an introduction, by David Wootton. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2000.

Voltaire. Candide, or, Optimism: A Fresh Translation, Backgrounds, Criticism. Translated and edited by Robert M. Adams. New York: Norton, 1991.

Voltaire. Candide and Zadig (Unabridged). Read by Neville Jason. Naxos AudioBook (688112), 2008. [6-CD set]

Leonard Bernstein’s Candide: A Comic Operetta in Two Acts. Music, Leonard Bernstein; book, Hugh Wheeler; lyrics, Richard Wilbur; additional lyrics, Stephen Sondheim. Featuring Kristin Chenoweth, Patti LuPone, and Paul Groves, with the New York Philharmonic, conducted by Marin Alsop. Directed for television and stage by Lonny Price. A production of Ellen M. Krass Productions and Thirteen/WNET New York. Chatsworth, Calif.: Image Entertainment, 2005. [DVD]


Theodore Besterman. Voltaire. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.

Nicholas Cronk, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Voltaire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Milton P. Foster. Voltaire’s Candide and the Critics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1962.

Peter Gay. Voltaire’s Politics: The Poet as Realist. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Haydn Mason. Candide: Optimism Demolished. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

Haydn Mason. Voltaire: A Biography. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Roger Pearson. The Fables of Reason: A Study of Voltaire’s “Contes philosophiques.” New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1956–present.

Voltaire: The Martin J. Gross Collection in The New York Public Library. New York: The New York Public Library, 2008.

Ira Owen Wade. Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art, and Philosophy. With the Text of the La Vallière Manuscript of Candide. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959.

Renée Waldinger, ed. Approaches to Teaching Voltaire’s Candide. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1987.

David Williams. Voltaire, Candide. London: Grant & Cutler, 1997.

The New York Public Library, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs,
Print Collection. Digital ID EM3278.

Le Tombeau de Voltaire [The Tomb of Voltaire], ca. 1780. In this allegorical print, the four corners of the globe are personified by D'Alembert (Europe), Catherine II of Russia (Asia), Prince Oronoco (Africa), and Benjamin Franklin (America). According to the print's legend, having shed their tears upon Voltaire's tomb, these sovereigns "are making ready to ornament it with crowns and palms, when suddenly they find themselves repulsed by the foolhardy and pitiless prejudice of Ignorance, who, armed with rods and supported by infernal wings, rushes from his cavern and endeavors to oppose himself to the homage about to be rendered from the four quarters of the earth."

Digital ID EM3278